Monitoring work conducted by David Swan of HS Archaeology during construction of two new houses at Straiton, South Ayrshire, has identified the remains of a building that could represent evidence for an early settlement associated with the nearby church. The plot under development is located immediately to the north of Straiton Parish Church, though separated by the line of the modern road. Although the majority of the present structure was erected in 1758, its fabric contains a medieval aisle of 13th or 14th century date, and a church is mentioned in relation to this site as far back as the early 13th century, when the grant of Straiton church to Paisley Abbey by Duncan, Earl of Carrick, was confirmed by Florence, Bishop-elect of Glasgow (1202-6). Churches in the medieval period often acted as nuclei for the development of related settlements, and this appears to have been the case at Straiton. The church was depicted on Roy's Military Survey of Scotland, conducted in the period 1747-55, immediately prior to the erection of the current structure, on which it was annotated as 'Kirk of Straton'. What appear to be buildings and enclosures were shown by Roy immediately to the north of the church, suggesting that there was occupation in this area before the mid 18th century. By the time of the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map of the mid 19th century, however, the plot was depicted as being largely unoccupied, and this situation remained on subsequent OS maps. During monitoring of the initial reduction of ground level associated with the development, however, HS Archaeology identified what appears to be a clay-bonded wall foundation with a possible threshold and an associated stone floor, all of which extend below the line of the modern pavement. This, combined with cartographic evidence, suggests that the structure could represent part of the settlement shown by Roy in the mid 18th century, or could be associated with even earlier occupation associated with the church.